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JICA Partnership Program
 "Development of a Model System for Participatory Community Waste Water Treatment in Densely Populated Area of Yogyakarta Special Province"

Toward Cleaner Water Circulation

 Today, some 2.6 billion people in the world are reported to lack access to adequate sanitation and some 1.8 million children to die every year as a result of diarrhea and other diseases caused by polluted water and poor sanitary conditions. Indonesia, just like the other Asian countries, is faced with serious water pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater from industries and household. Polluted water degrades sanitary conditions, affecting not only agricultural & fishery production but also the whole eco-system inter-connected with diverse living creatures. In order to effectively solve the problems related to water pollution, wastewater must be treated with appropriate technology. However, sophisticated wastewater treatment technologies used in industrialized countries would not be suitable for Indonesia because of high costs and complex operations. Therefore, appropriate technologies that are suitable for the social and economic conditions in Indonesia need to be developed.

 Since 1995, APEX has collaborated with Yayasan Dian Desa (YDD) to develop and diffuse appropriate technologies for wastewater treatment. APEX and YDD developed Rotating Biological Contactors made of palm fiber, built and operated pilot plants, and held international conferences. Based on the experiences, APEX and YDD implemented a project called "Establishment and Management of Appropriate Technology Center for Waste Water Treatment in Indonesia" from October 2001 to September 2004 as a "The JICA Partnership Program with NGOs, Local Governments and Institutes". Focusing on wastewater issues in small- and medium-scale industries, the project aimed at developing appropriate technologies, human resource development programs and networks to effectively tackle water pollution issues in Indonesia.

  While continuing activities for small- and medium-scale industries' waste water treatment self-sufficiently, we started a new project named "Development of a Model System for Participatory Community Waste Water Treatment in Densely Populated Area of Yogyakarta Special Province" in April 2006 as a JICA partnership program. In general, wastewater from household is regarded to have larger organic load which cause water pollution than that from industry, but it is unlikely that centralized sewage treatment system prevails in near future in Indonesia. Septic tank - the commonly used on-site domestic wastewater treatment system in Indonesia, which is individually installed at each house - is difficult to use in densely populated area for the limitation of space and for the risk of causing ground water pollution. Therefore, off-site wastewater treatment system in community level is preferable, but sophisticated technologies used in industrialized countries are too expensive to use and difficult to operate in Indonesia. This project aims to develop a model system for community wastewater treatment which is suitable for socio-economic conditions in Indonesia, and diffuse it. The duration of the project is 32 months until November 2008. The model system is planned to be developed in Yogyakarta Special Province, one of the cultural & educational center of Indonesia with abundant heritage to be preserved, and then will be diffused widely in the country.

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